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Miscarriage - A spontaneous loss of pregnancy

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18 Aug, 2018

Miscarriage is an unplanned or spontaneous loss of a pregnancy before 20th week which is very painful for her emotionally and physically. Miscarriage is a very common type of pregnancy loss. According to the studies, miscarriage normally occurs in early pregnancy rather in the late weeks of pregnancy, some women actually undergo miscarriage before they could know that they were pregnant.

A study has shown that 8 to 20% of women who knew that they were pregnant face miscarriage before 20thweek of pregnancy, 80% of these pregnancies have miscarriages before the 12th week.

Symptoms

  • Pain can be mild to severe and is present in areas such as the abdomen, pelvis, lower back, and vagina.
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Cramping
  • Fatigue
  • Discharge of fluid, blood and tissue from the vagina
  • Vaginal bleeding and spotting
  • Diagnosis
  • Ultrasound
  • A pelvic exam to see if your cervix has dilated or no
  • Blood tests to check hormone levels
  • Chromosomal tests if you have consecutive miscarriages
  • Tissue test – if the fetal tissue has been passed it can be collected and sent to the lab for confirmation of a miscarriage.

 

Miscarriage these days is very common and increasingly so because of many factors but these causes vary from person to person. So the treatment also varies accordingly. Causes are listed down as below

  • Maternal health is very important because this may lead to miscarriage. Conditions might lead to miscarriage are infections, diabetes, cervix and uterus problems, thyroid disease, hormonal and other disorders or diseases.
  • Chromosomal abnormalities are the abnormalities which occur in the chromosome number which hinders the fetus growth and development. So these abnormalities may lead to,
  • Intrauterine fetal demise is a condition where an embryo is formed but there is no development. An embryo dies before showing any symptoms of pregnancy loss.
  • A blighted ovum is another condition where the formation of an embryo does not take place.
  • Partial and molar pregnancy in partial pregnancy two sets of chromosome comes from father and mother chromosome remains these results in placental abnormalities and an abnormal fetus.
  • In a molar pregnancy, there is no fetal development only abnormal growth of placenta this normally occurs when both the sets of chromosome comes from father.

Both these can sometimes lead to cancerous changes of the placenta.

 

Risk factors

  • Uncontrolled diabetes and other chronic condition may lead to miscarriage.
  • Age – studies have shown that women age above 35 have a 20% chance of miscarriage and these increases according to the age where women above age 40 have an 80% chance of miscarriage.
  • Addiction to alcohol, smoking, drugs etc
  • Previous consecutive miscarriages
  • Weak cervical muscles or uterine abnormalities
  • Sometimes, an Invasive prenatal genetic diagnosis such as chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis may lead to miscarriages.
  • Weight – underweight and overweight women

All these are risk factors and various studies have evaluated and shown their relevance to miscarriage.

 

Treatment

There is no treatment for miscarriage but you can only prevent it. The only treatment remains is to recover from that pain and recover the body so it becomes healthy. Doctor checkups are necessary to confirm that the uterus is empty and also to prevent future miscarriages.

 

 

HOW TO AVOID MISCARRIAGE?

It is difficult to control anything but you still can try preventing certain things to control miscarriages.

  • First routine doctor checkups.
  • Proper medications
  • No heavy activities.
  • Work in a safe environment example free from radiation, toxic gases etc.
  • No smoking, drinking drug abuse etc.